Rendering calculates the 3D models, materials and lighting properties for the final image output. Starting from all light sources, the lighting for the entire scene is derived by using ray tracing. With global illumination, light rays can be traced several times after impacting surfaces. Depending on the surface properties and the angle of incidence, a certain amount of light is passed on. Different effects allow the specific adjustment of the results. Ambient occlusion for example, allows the automated generation of shading dependent on the angle and the distance between surfaces. In addition, methods are in use to optimize the transfer of the results into the pixel space and the playback of individual frames as animations (antialiasing, motion blur). The duration of the image calculation depends on the final pixel resolution, the accuracy and depth of the light calculation, the complexity of the models and materials, and the effects in use. For every object in a scene the duration of the calculation can be optimized, for example, dependent on the distance to the camera.

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